Nalta Paat Pata Bhaja - Jute Leaves

Edible green Corchorus capsularis L. and C. olitorius L. | How to cook jute leaves nalte paat pata

Edible green Corchorus capsularis L. and C. olitorius L. | How to cook jute leaves nalte paat pata

Molokheya or mulukhiyah Jute leaves (Paat pata) is an Indian dish with a bitter taste that is rich in nutrients like iron, protein, calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, and dietary fiber. It is commonly referred to as Nalte or Koshta in Bengali, Titamara in Assamese, and Jhot in Oriya. In India, the dish is usually served during summer and is a popular ingredient in traditional meals. To prepare Paat pata bhaja, jute leaves are mixed with a binder made of rice powder, flour, salt, sugar, and oil, and lightly sautéed before serving. The leaves contain more than 32 vitamins, minerals, and trace elements, including folate, beta-carotene, iron, calcium, vitamin C, and more. The plant has considerable -tocopherol equivalent vitamin E and strong antioxidant activity.

Paat/Nalte pata (Jute Leaves) fry a very popular bitter taste Indian recipe. A very popular bitter taste Indian recipe.

Barnali Dutta

Paat Pata recipe - Jute Leaves fry

(150 reviews)

PAAT/JUTE TREE named Jute mallow is a very nutritious leafy vegetable, rich in iron, protein, calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, and natural dietary fiber. It has a long history and a variety of names. First cultivated in Egypt. Mulukhiyyah is an Egyptian national dish that is widely popular now in Lebanon and various countries of today’s African continent, Arabian countries, and the Philippines, It is also called Saluyot. Each region has its version. Japan has been importing dry jute leaf from Africa and they are using it as a substitute for coffee and tea. In Europe, jute leaves are being used as soup. It is rather bitter and when boiled the resulting liquid is a thick one, the texture becomes similar to okra thus prompting the name 'Bush okra". When harvested young, jute leaves are flavorful and tender while older leaves tend to be more woody and fibrous making them less ideal for consumption.

Cleopatra’s Secret Wrinkle Buster!! Jute has been grown for food since 6000 B.C. and was reportedly eaten by Cleopatra for its health and beauty benefits. Botanical Name: Corchorus capsularis L. and C. olitorius L. Jew's Mallow Family: Tiliaceae.In India, it is locally known as:

Vernacular Name
Bengali Nalta sag or shaak, Nalita or Koshta, Bhungipat.
Assamese Titamara, Pata or Marapata.
Oriya Jhot, Jhout, Jhuta or Toria, Kaunria .
Hindi Chiench, Janascha, Narcha, Singhin, Pat sag, Titapat, or Jute.
Sanskrit Cancu, Kalasaka, Nadibhanga, Nadika, Mahachanchu, Patta or Singgika.
Telugu Janapanara.
Gujarati Bor Chhunchi.
Kannada Sanabu, Chinchala Gida, Chunchala Gida or Kinikini Beeja.
Marathi Kurru Chantz, Chaunchan, Choche, Kulichi Bhaaji, Taankal Joot, Banpat or Tupkati.
Tamil Punaku, Piratti-Kirai or Naruvalli.
Telugu Parinta or Janumu.
"কলাপাতে ওগরা ভাত (ফ্যানা ভাত), তাতে গাওয়া ঘি, দুধ,
মৌরলা মাছ ও নালিতা শাক - কান্তা দিচ্ছে পুণ্যবান খাচ্ছে"

"The meaning of this verse in Bengali is Paat pata (পাট পাতা) is a favorite dish during the months of summer, especially in Sambalpur and the western part of Odisha. Usually, it is lightly sautéed and eaten along with rice. A traditional meal invariably begins with a khar (a group of bitter dishes) in Assam, Xôkôta is one of them, a preparation made with dry jute leaf.

This is the simplest Bengal village-type recipe for a regular Bengali meal. Many other variations may be there, I made it as pure regional Bengal household likes it, not like a bora or pakora. It is recommended to consume jute leaves in Bengali households as a home remedy for constipation.

Ingredients for Paat pata bhaja recipe

  • Jute leaf (পাট পাতা) whole about 2 to 3 per head,(preferably dried leaves)
  • 1 tsp kala jeera/nigella seeds
For the binder:
  • 2 tbsp rice powder
  • 1 tbsp flour
  • 1 tsp salt
  • A pinch of sugar to balance the taste
  • 1 tbsp oil


  1. For this recipe dried leaves are best. It can be made with fresh leaves also. Wash the leaves gently without damaging them and drain thoroughly.
  2. Mix the binder with minimum water. Sprinkle kala jeera (nigella seeds) in the mix. The water from wet leaves will be sufficient to stick the binders to the leaves.
  3. Do not chop the leaves, put the whole leaf into the binder mix, and take care that the leaves do not get crushed or too much damaged otherwise they will become slimy.
  4. In the meanwhile put a flat tawa or nonstick fry pan on heat for shallow fry.
  5. Wet your fingers with water. Take leaves one by one. Do not be tempted to add more binder. It will just be enough to stick to the leaves and will keep the flavor of jute leaf. The leaf will just be quite visible. Now fold the whole leaf once and press them so that they stay flat.
  6. Now shallow fry with 1 tbsp oil in the batches.
  7. Do not turn the leaf until its done on one side. It can be moved easily with a spoon then.
  8. Turn the leaves and let them be for a few minutes. The leaves and the binder will become crunchy andly slightly black and green in color.
  9. Serve with white steamed rice and raw green chili (optional). Perfectly cooked leaves can be crushed over rice.

You might be interested in The Top 13 Traditional Edible Green Dishes of Bengal

What is Paat pata?

Paat pata is an Indian dish with a bitter taste made with jute leaves, which are rich in nutrients such as iron, protein, calcium, and dietary fiber.

What are the other names for Paat pata?

Paat pata is known by different names in different regions of India such as Nalte or Koshta in Bengali, Titamara in Assamese, and Jhot in Oriya.

Where did jute leaves originate from?

Jute leaves were first cultivated in Egypt and have been grown for food since 6000 B.C.

What are the health benefits of jute leaves?

Jute leaves are rich in iron, protein, calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, and dietary fiber. Cleopatra is known to have eaten jute leaves for their health and beauty benefits.

How is Paat pata served in India?

In India, Paat pata is usually served during the summer and is a popular ingredient in traditional meals. It is usually sautéed and served along with rice.

What is the recipe for Paat pata bhaja?

The recipe for Paat pata bhaja involves mixing jute leaves with a binder made of rice powder, flour, salt, sugar, and oil, and then sautéing it lightly before serving.

What is the origin of Paat pata dish in India?

Paat pata is a favorite dish in the western part of Odisha, particularly in Sambalpur, and is a traditional dish in Bengal.

What is the texture of Paat pata when cooked?

The texture of Paat pata after boiling becomes similar to okra, prompting the name "Bush okra".

What is the most favorite jute leaf bengali recipe?

Palka a jute leaves curry, jute leaves fried with onion garlic and rice powder in oil to make paat pata curry. প্যালকা, চালের গুঁড়ো পেঁয়াজ রসুন দিয়ে সঙ্গে পাট পাতা তেলে ভেজে তৈরী ঝোল |

Culinary varieties

The dish mulukhiyah, also known as molokhia, molohiya, or ewedu, is made from the leaves of Corchorus olitorius, also called denje'c'jute, nalta jute, tossa jute, jute mallow, or Jew's Mallow in English. It is mostly consumed in The Levant, which includes Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Egypt, Cyprus, Libya, and Tunisia, as a vegetable. In the Philippines, it is referred to as "Saluyot" in some countries.

When mulukhiyah is boiled, the bitter root becomes a thick, mucilaginous broth that is frequently referred to as "slimy" and compared to cooked okra. In general, mulukhiyah is consumed cooked, not raw, and either in Syria, it is chopped and sautéed in oil, garlic, and cilantro, or in Egypt it is made into a soup or stew, usually with the same name as the vegetable in the local tongue. Traditionally, mulukhiyah is prepared with chicken, or at the very least chicken stock, to give it a taste. It is eaten with white rice and lemon or lime on the side.

genesis and historical

Although the majority of academics believe that mulukhiyah originated in Ancient Egypt, there is evidence to suggest that India is the origin of the closely similar species Corchorus capsularis, which is utilized both for food and fiber.

Egyptian cuisine

In Egyptian cooking, molokhiya is made by cutting the center spine from the leaves and then chopping the leaves with garlic and coriander until they are very finely chopped. In Egypt, the meat used in the meal is typically chicken or rabbit, while the lamb is preferred when it is available, especially in Cairo. While Port Said is known for its use of fish, Alexandrian chefs frequently choose to include shrimp in their soups.

The term "molokhiya" is believed to have originated in ancient Egyptian cuisine, where it was consumed. Along with ful medames and kushari, molokhiya is revered as Egypt's national dish by many Egyptians. The way that molokhiya is made in Egypt is unusual and differs greatly from the Levantine version. With the help of tall stemmed branches, the molokhiya leaves are detached from the stem. Then, they are spread out on a sizable sheet of fabric to finish drying so they can be used later.

Following drying, the leaves are minced, frequently using a mezzaluna. The leaves are then cooked in a broth, and any meat or seafood—either bone-in or boneless—is then added. The ingredients for "ta'leyya" (literally, "a frying" or "fried thing") are separately fried in ghee or oil before being put into the soup at the very end while it is still sizzling. Egyptian flatbread (eish baladi), or white rice, may be eaten alongside the soup. Various pickled vegetables, known in Egypt as mekhallel or torshi, are frequently served alongside the dish. There might also be condiments like vinegar, tomato sauce, and others.

Levantine style Mulukhiya

The traditional Levantine molokhia meal is made by boiling a type of meat in a separate pot. After simmering garlic for a while, water and chicken stock cubes are added to create a broth. After boiling, the chicken or meat is added together with the broth, coriander, and molokhia leaves, and is then simmered for an additional 15 minutes. White rice and fresh lemon are offered beside it. Additionally, in northern Lebanon, a dish known as mloukhiye b zeit is prepared using fresh leaves and shoots of the Nalta jute plant and is a favourite summer side dish, particularly in the Miniyeh-Danniyeh and Akkar areas. It is cooked in olive oil, onions, garlic, tomatoes, and chilli peppers.

A variant variation of the dish is traditionally prepared by Bedouins. The intestines of a whole chicken are removed, the insides are filled with herbs, spices, and raw rice, and the cavity is then stitched together with heavy thread. After being prepared, the molokhia soup is served in five separate portions: the soup, Arabic flat bread, the chicken (stuffed with flavorful rice), more plain rice, and a small bowl with a mixture of lemon juice and sliced red chillies. Rice and lemon juice are added to the soup as desired, and the chicken is served on a separate platter.

Tunisian and Libyan cuisine

Tunisian mloukhiya stew with meat. The meal is typically made very differently in Tunisia and Libya than it is in Egypt. The leaves, which have already been separated from the stems, are dried, powdered into a fine powder, and then stored in jars or other containers with tight lids. Cooking, also known as mulukhya or mloukhiya, requires five to seven hours of preparation, which is frequently started in the evening and finished in the morning. As the dish is let to simmer during the Jewish Sabbath, when active cooking is forbidden, this technique distinguishes the dish as being of Jewish origin.

A sauce, not a soup, is made using the powder, olive oil, and occasionally tomato paste; large chunks of chuck beef are frequently added about the halfway point of simmering. The dark green sauce is allowed to thicken to tomato sauce consistency while simmering over low heat. With a piece of beef, the sauce is served on tiny, deep plates, and is best paired with white, substantial traditional bread. Lamb is utilized in some areas where beef is uncommon yet cooks much more quickly.

Kenyan cuisine

The dish is referred to in Kenya by many different native language names, including murere (Luhya), murenda, apoth (Luo), and others. It is a highly well-liked vegetable dish in the Nyanza region as well as the Western region (Vihiga, Kakamega, Busia, Trans Nzoia, and Bungoma Counties) (Kisumu, Siaya, Homa Bay, Kisii, Migori, and Nyamira Counties). Both areas are located close to Lake Victoria. The jute leaves are cut off from the stems, cleaned, and boiled with ligadi (raw soda (bicarbonate of soda), or munyu) in moderately salted water (traditional plant-based salt).

To lessen their sliminess and aid in softening the other vegetable leaves, the leaves are boiled alongside other leafy vegetables such as likuvi (leaves from Vigna unguiculata, or cowpeas), or mito (chipin). In certain circumstances, the veggies are cooked in oil with tomatoes and onions after around 30 minutes of boiling. The mutere can be made in several general ways, and there are numerous ways to serve it. Curry, pepper, masala, and coriander are optional spices. Mutere can be paired with chicken or meat and is typically served with ugali, a commonly cooked cereal meal.

West African cuisines

In a lot of the tropical West African nations, the leaf is a common diet. The "drip points" on the leaves are thought to be used to shed extra water off the leaf from the frequent tropical downpours. When eaten with rice or cassava fufu (a traditional cuisine produced from cassava), it is known as minnou(wi) or crin-crin sauce in Benin and similarly as kren-kre in Sierra Leone. Alternatively, it is steamed and incorporated into rice right before eating a non-palm oil sauce.

It is served with fried yam flour and is known as ewedu among the Yoruba people of south-west Nigeria (amala). It is known as palaver sauce in Liberia and is typically eaten with rice or fufu. It is known as kereng-kereng in The Gambia and is typically used to manufacture supakanja (a dish mostly served on Saturdays and made with okra, red palm oil, fish, and meat).

It is used to prepare accompanying soups for Banku (a dish made of corn and cassava bread) or cooked rice in Ghana and is known as Ademe ewe or Ayoyo leaves.

Cypriot cuisine

The dish is referred to as molohiya in Cyprus. Both Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots enjoy it. Springtime cultivation and growth results in the harvest of the jute leaves, which are then cut off from the stem and dried whole. They are prepared in an onion-and-garlic-infused tomato-based broth. The addition of bone-in lamb or bone-in chicken is also permitted. Potato and lemon are also added for best results to prevent the consistency from being too mucilaginous or slimy. With sourdough bread, it is served with a broth-like consistency.

Haitian cuisine

The dish of leafy greens, known as lalo in Haiti, is typically prepared with or without meat. The meat of choice for Haitians is either beef or pig shoulder. Additionally available are seafood items like blue crabs, shrimp, or snow crab legs. White rice is typically offered with it.